Can Moderate Dry Quality Wine Improve Fasting Plasma Glucose levels in Diabetics ? 2009). MLF has become an essential step for producing all red wines and numerous white wines. 1997; Zapparoli et al. O. oeni is only a small part of it. 2015), but this was not confirmed by isolating strains. Aust J Grape Wine R 11:174–187, Bartowsky EJ (2009) Bacterial spoilage of wine and approaches to minimize it. A pure culture of Oenococcus oeni is not a homogeneous population but a heterogeneous collection of individual cells. CAS The application of NGS technology for transcriptomics analysis for a nonmodel organism, such as O. oeni, allows to study gene expression with high resolution. Lett Appl Microbiol 48:149–156, Bartowsky EJ (2017) Oenococcus oeni and the genomic era. As a result of natural selection, thanks to its remarkable tolerance for the fluctuating environmental conditions during alcoholic fermentation, O. oeni becomes the dominant species among those triggering MLF (Solieri et al. 2012; Pramateftaki et al. It is a diplococcus that sometimes forms chains, Gram-positive, microaerophilic, obligatory heterofermentative, producing d-lactate from glucose (along with CO2 and ethanol or acetate), acidophilic, and more tolerant to low pH than all other Leuconostoc species. The type of wine and winemaking practices modulates not only the LAB species and population, but also the strains of O. oeni (Gonzalez-Arenzana et al. Mechanism analysis of combined acid-and-ethanol shock on Oenococcus oeni using RNA-Seq. 2012b; El Khoury et al. How much is too much ? Like in Shochu, MLF is not a feature in the sugarcane fermentations; in fact, the LAB are regarded as contaminants in the process (Badotti et al. PubMed O. oeni has long been the only known representative of the genus Oenococcus, although two other species were more recently identified (Fig. Numerous studies have shown that there is a great diversity of strains in each wine region and in each product or type of wine. Different genetic and phenotypic surveys have revealed considerable strain diversity within natural O. oeni populations associated with different types of wine and a correlation between such diversity and the peculiarity of certain oenological niches has also been supposed (Cappello et al. 1988). Int Microbiol 14:155–162, Mesas JM, Rodriguez MC, Alegre MT (2011) Characterization of lactic acid bacteria from musts and wines of three consecutive vintages of Ribeira Sacra. 2016). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:15611–15616, Marcobal AM, Sela DA, Wolf YI, Makarova KS, Mills DA (2008) Role of hypermutability in the evolution of the genus Oenococcus. The solution was probably reached with the development of quantitative PCR tests for each group A-D (Lorentzen, unpublished). Int J Food Microbiol 123:171–176, Lechiancole T, Blaiotta G, Messina D, Fusco V, Villani F, Salzano G (2006) Evaluation of intra-specific diversities in Oenococcus oeni through analysis of genomic and expressed DNA. O. oeni would have been ranked as a minor LAB species barely detectable in the natural environment and more often in fruit juices when they start to ferment. 10.20870/oeno-one.2017.51.4.1861 [Google Scholar] Capucho I., San Romao M. V. (1994). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 103, 2937–2945 (2019). The hypermutability linked to the absence of the MutSL system is undoubtedly a key factor in the rapid evolution and adaptation of the strains, but several points remain to be determined: the genetic changes associated to this adaptation to wine and to different types of wines, and why O. oeni has outperformed other species in this harsh environment. This content is password protected. 2013). 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The geographical distribution of microorganisms is a major issue in the context of wine production, for which the quality and typicity of wine are strongly associated with the characteristics of the region of production, commonly grouped under the concept of terroir. 2008; Vigentini et al. Google Scholar, Kelly WJ, Huang CM, Asmundson RV (1993) Comparison of Leuconostoc oenos strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. O. kitaharae is phylogenetically close from O. oeni, but it has different properties such as a higher pH optimum of growth, the inability to convert malic acid into lactic acid and CO2, and a different sugar consumption profile (Endo & Okada 2006; Cibrario et al. 2015; Bokulich et al. Kombucha is a traditional Asian drink that has become popular and industrially produced in North America and Europe. 2017). The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. As discussed below, strains that preferentially develop in wine or in cider belong to different genetic lineages (El Khoury et al. The impacts of Schizosaccharomyces on winemaking. 2014b). 2008; Larisika et al. Lyoprotective effect of soluble extracellular polymeric substances from Oenococcus oeni during its freeze-drying process. 2010; Campbell-Sills et al. BMC Genomics (in review), Makarova K, Slesarev A, Wolf Y, Sorokin A, Mirkin B, Koonin E, Pavlov A, Pavlova N, Karamychev V, Polouchine N, Shakhova V, Grigoriev I, Lou Y, Rohksar D, Lucas S, Huang K, Goodstein DM, Hawkins T, Plengvidhya V, Welker D, Hughes J, Goh Y, Benson A, Baldwin K, Lee JH, Diaz-Muniz I, Dosti B, Smeianov V, Wechter W, Barabote R, Lorca G, Altermann E, Barrangou R, Ganesan B, Xie Y, Rawsthorne H, Tamir D, Parker C, Breidt F, Broadbent J, Hutkins R, O'Sullivan D, Steele J, Unlu G, Saier M, Klaenhammer T, Richardson P, Kozyavkin S, Weimer B, Mills D (2006) Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria. 2006; Quiros et al. Int J Food Microbiol 83:1–14, Iglesias NG, Valdés La Hens D, Olguin NT, Bravo-Ferrada BM, Brizuela NS, Tymczyszyn EE, Bibiloni H, Caballero AC, Delfederico L, Semorile L (2018) Genome sequence of Oenococcus oeni UNQOe19, the first fully assembled genome sequence of a Patagonian psychrotrophic oenological strain. Nevertheless, these methods fail at providing data on the species population structure and phylogenetic proximity of the strains. They have also revealed new strains lineages and allowed the discovery of some correlations with the regions or products of origin. 2014) and also, several investigations have been conducted on commercial and indigenous strains of O. oeni providing evidence of the potential value and the higher activities of autochthonous which are for the enhancement of specific physicochemical conditions of wine (Cafaro et al. The fate of Oenococcus oeni would have been very different if the benefits of performing MLF in wine had not been perceived in the middle of the twentieth century (Davis et al. 2006; Ruiz et al. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 23:447–455, Vigentini I, Praz A, Domeneghetti D, Zenato S, Picozzi C, Barmaz A, Foschino R (2016) Characterization of malolactic bacteria isolated from Aosta Valley wines and evidence of psychrotrophy in some strains. They have also unveiled the phylogenetic diversity and genomic properties of strains that develop in different regions or different products. In addition, correlations have been made between the grape microbiota (yeasts or bacteria) and the presence in wine of specific metabolites that influence the quality perception (Knight et al. J Appl Microbiol 120:934–945, Viti C, Giovannetti L, Granchi L, Ventura S (1996) Species attribution and strain typing of Oenococcus oeni (formerly Leuconostoc oenos) with restriction endonuclease fingerprints. The first genome sequence showed that O. oeni has a rare genetic characteristic: it is hypermutable due to the absence of the DNA mismatch repair system, MutSL, which most likely contributed to its rapid adaptation to the wine environment (Marcobal et al. 2015; Cruz-Pio et al. Google Scholar, Borneman AR, McCarthy JM, Chambers PJ, Bartowsky EJ (2012b) Functional divergence in the genus Oenococcus as predicted by genome sequencing of the newly-described species, Oenococcus kitaharae.
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