The ethical codes found in various professional manuals should guide people in writing their materials because posting anything, including false information, would be misleading the public and this would cause pain to certain individuals hence the government has the responsibility to prevent this act. Is there a case to be made for “justified harm” in any of these leagues? Happiness of people.  Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. The field is surprisingly new.  Marc Siegel, Concussions and Football: New Helmets, New Tools, The Hill, Aug. 19, 2019. There are four classifications by which modern-day utilitarianism can be grouped. 1. This does not only increase the government’s financial burden but also undermines the working incentives of the nationals, which might lead to economic inefficiency. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020); Alan Schwarz et al., N.F.L.’s Flawed Concussion Research and Ties to Tobacco Industry, New York Times, March 24, 2016. Baura, Gail. In the state of nature, animals with several characteristics exist, as there are some feeding on insects, others on seeds, and some on nectar. A study of former NFL players found that those who began playing football before age 12 tended to show greater later-life cognitive impairments as compared to those who began after age 12. Is your opinion altered by the fact that the scientist quoted above is the neurologist for the Michigan State University football team? The ongoing uprisings in the Arab world are attributable to technology since people are in a position to receive and share information easily (Petronio 112). And if the fool, or the pig, are of a different opinion, it is only because they only know their own side of the question”. He seems basically wise in practical affairs, mouthing quotes of different poets, and appreciating their meaning, thus, representing the old traditional school of morality.  Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. A 2017 study found CTE in 21% of donated brains of deceased high school football players.  Kevin M. Guskiewicz et al., Recurrent Concussion and Risk of Depression in Retired Professional Football Players, Medicine & Science in Sports & Leisure, 39(6): 903-909 (2007). According to the Utilitarian ethics, the government should aim at implementing policies that will ensure happiness while at the same time reducing suffering (Gupta 67). https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216311939?via%3Dihub, “Dodging Rumour and Insurgency: The Hunt for Burmese Amber Goes to the Heart of Myanmar’s Turbulent North,” Financial Post, Jan. 26, 2017. https://business.financialpost.com/commodities/mining/dodging-rumour-and-insurgency-the-hunt-for-burmese-amber-goes-to-the-heart-of-myanmars-turbulent-north, “It is Time to Bring Global Attention to the Trade in Burmese Amber,” NewScientist, May 1, 2019. https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232283-300-it-is-time-to-bring-global-attention-to-the-trade-in-burmese-amber/, American football is a rough and dangerous game. A political issue?  Nicholas Dixon, Boxing, Paternalism, and Legal Moralism, Social Theory and Practice, 27(2): 323-344 (2001). We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. How does one assign value to human life, or time, or artistic pleasures such as literature and music? Russell, The Value of Dangerous Sport, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 32: 1-19 (2005).  Zachary Y. Kerr et al., Concussion Incidence and Trends in 20 High School Sports, Pediatrics 144(5): e20192190. b. Explain the concept of Utilitarianism in detail and bring out its criticism with suitable examples. As Jeremy Bentham, the founder of traditional utilitarianism, stated as the basis for the utilitarian philosophy, According to utilitarian ethics, the government is not doing enough to reduce human suffering.  Thomas L. Schwenk, Depression and Pain in Retired Professional Football Players, Medicine & Science in Sports & Leisure, 39(4): 599-605 92007)(but finding that when coupled with difficult with pain, problems with sleep and social relations often followed). The term justice means getting what you deserve both good and bad. Print.  Daniel Goldberg, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, the National Football League, and the Manufacture of Doubt: An Ethical, Legal, and Historical Analysis, Journal of Legal Medicine, 34: 157-191 (2013).  Steven Senne, Student Athletes Still Reluctant to Report Concussions, Nationwide Children’s Study Finds, Columbus Dispatch, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds. The government has always ensured that members of various professions, such as the medical fraternity, are guided by a certain code, which instructs them to maintain high standards when relating with patients, as this would realize the best results. [Reporting a concussion] doesn’t make you weak, it means you’re strong.” On the other hand, President Trump has stated that rule changes to diminish head injuries are “ruining the game.”, One scientist said: “Don’t forget there’s risk in everything we do. , If only one thing is clear about the current science surrounding sports-related concussions (SRCs) and related brain injuries, it is that very little is clear about the current science. For instance, people with diverse religious affiliations should be allowed to coexist while those with tendencies to gamble have to be provided with their freedoms as well (Cohen 21). For instance, the government does not consider a policy that would construct a warehouse for the detainees who go through their rehabilitation program successfully but instead it would formulate a policy that retrains, supervises, and incorporates the individuals into the community (Harris 76).
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